Packaging: Need for integration of heat exchangers, CFD modeling of underhood flow
and temperatures, simulation studies.
Nucleate boiling: Need to control nucleate boiling.
Materials: The new carbon foams could have potential for air-side heat removal and
should be supported. These materials could have applicability in refrigeration units.
Nanoparticles: The heat capacity of fluids containing nanoparticles generated interest, not
so much for the radiator, but possibly for engine cooling. There is a concern that
nanoparticles of copper in a lubricating oil might cause havoc with wear, but no one
knows, and data are needed.
Other topics that were deemed worthy of DOE support, but that have longer-range goals
were adaptive air conditioning, heat pipes, and utilization of exhaust heat. Heat pipes are
presently very expensive.
Another need is that there seems to be no standard "fouling" test for heat exchangers.
This might not be an appropriate task for DOE, but rather for something like an ASME
standard committee. DOE should be more interested in the mechanisms involved in
R&D on EGR heat exchangers was felt to be unnecessary, while R&D on radial fans was